Genetic changes include mutations, which are caused by damage or replication errors in organisms' DNA.As the genetic variation of a population drifts randomly over generations, natural selection gradually leads traits to become more or less common based on the relative reproductive success of organisms with those traits. during the Eoarchean Era after geological crust started to solidify, following the earlier molten Hadean Eon.In contrast to genetic drift, natural selection is not a random process because it acts on traits that are necessary for survival and reproduction.
During his voyage, he observed and collected an abundance of organisms, being very interested in the diverse forms of life along the coasts of South America and the neighboring Galápagos Islands.
In the 19th century, natural history collections and museums were popular.
The European expansion and naval expeditions employed naturalists, while curators of grand museums showcased preserved and live specimens of the varieties of life.
Microbial mat fossils in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone have been found in Western Australia.
Based on the similarities between all present-day organisms, all life on Earth is assumed to have originated through common descent from a last universal ancestor from which all known species have diverged through the process of evolution.All individuals have hereditary material in the form of genes received from their parents, which they pass on to any offspring.